The Constitution for the United States, Its Sources and Its Application
It Is Our Choice Who We Will Serve!
Thomas Jefferson once said:
"I believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies . . . If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of their currency, first by inflation, then by deflation, the banks and corporations that will grow up around [the banks] . . . will deprive the people of all property until their children wake-up homeless on the continent their fathers conquered . . . The issuing power should be taken from the banks and restored to the people, to whom it properly belongs." -- Thomas Jefferson -- The Debate Over The Recharter Of The Bank Bill, (1809)
The Makers of the Constitution foresaw the need of a national capital. The city of Washington, the District of Columbia, became the capital in 1800. There the work of the government is centered. Congress is given complete charge and control over it. Its residents have no vote. They, alone, of all the people in the United States, must obey laws, with the making of which, they have had nothing to do. They elect no representative to Congress; neither do they elect any city or district officer.
The money, which you use in all your business affairs, is made according to laws passed by Congress. Congress controls the printing of paper money, as well as, the coining of gold and silver money and the smaller coins of nickel and copper.
United States money, in the form of bills, is usually accepted, as equal to gold, in any civilized country. That is because the government keeps enough gold in the United States treasury, and in the banks, to meet all demands on it, for redeeming the paper money.
Congress alone may have money coined. No state may do so.
It is interesting to read the printing on several different kinds of bills . . . a "green-back" or United States note, a federal reserve note, a gold certificate, and a national bank note, perhaps, given by a bank in your own city.
One of these guarantees that the holder will be given the amount of the bill, in gold coin, upon demand; andin fact, gold can be obtained for any of them.
With the power of Congress, to have money made, goes its power to punish those who make false money. To make any coins or bills or stamps, in imitation of those, of the United States, is counterfeiting. Even if it cost a gang of counterfeiters twenty-five cents to make a coin, to pass for a dime, this would be counterfeiting and severely punishable in the United States courts.
"THE CONSTITUTION OF OUR COUNTRY" By Frank A. Rexford
SUPERVISING CIVICS IN THE SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK by Clara L. Carson, Chairman Of The Civics Department Of Wadleigh High School, City Of New York Copyright 1924, by AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY
On December 23, 1913, the U.S. Congress passed the Federal Reserve Act, placing control of this nation's money into the hands of a private corporation. In 1920, the 66th Congress passed the Independent Treasury Act.
In 1921, the United States abolished the U.S. Treasury.
This allowed all United States money in the private Federal Reserve Banks to be kept separate from Federal Reserve Notes. To wit:
"That, if any moneys or bullion, constituting part of the trust funds or other special funds heretofore required by law to be kept in Treasury offices, shall be deposited with any Federal reserve bank, then such moneys or bullion shall by such bank be kept separate and distinct from the assets, funds, and securities of the Federal Reserve Bank and be held in the joint custody of the Federal Reserve Agent and the Federal Reserve Bank;"
From 1913, until 1933, under the authority of the U.S. Congress, a private corporation held control of this nation's GOLD. The U.S. paid interest on the use of their own gold, with more and more of its gold, ultimately ending in bankruptcy.
Inevitably, the bankers foreclosed.
On March 9, 1933, the U.S. declared bankruptcy, as expressed in President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's Executive Orders 6073, 6102, 6111, and 6260.
President Roosevelt declared a National Emergency that made it unlawful for any citizen of the United States to own gold. Our bankrupt nation went into receivership and reorganized in favor of it's creditor and new owners, a private corporation of international bankers. (Since 1933, what is called the "United States Government" is a privately owned corporation of the Federal Reserve/IMF.)
Without a word of truth to the American people, all our good faith and credit was pledged as the surety for the debt by the same Congress who created the mechanism that allowed it to occur.
Those exercising the offices of the several States, in equal measure, knew such "De Facto Transitions" were unlawful and unauthorized, but sanctioned, implemented, and enforced the complete debauchment and the resulting "governmental, social, industrial economic change" in the "De Jure" States, and in United States of America.
Public Law 94-564 Legislative History, pg. 5936, 594531 U.S.C.A. , 31431 U.S.C.A., 5112C.R.S. , 11-61-101C.R.S. 39-22-103.5
They were and are now under the delusion that they can do, both, directly and indirectly, what they were absolutely prohibited from doing. - Federalist Papers No. 44, Craig vs. Missouri, 4 Peters 903
On June 5, 1933, Congress passed HJR-192. House Joint Resolution 192 was passed to suspend the gold standard and abrogate the gold clause in the national constitution. Since then no one in America has been able to lawfully pay a debt. This resolution declared:
". . . Whereas the holding or dealing in gold affect the PUBLIC INTEREST, [STATE-Corporate Interest] and are therefore subject to proper regulation and restriction: and whereas the existing emergency has disclosed that provisions of obligations which purport to give the obligee a RIGHT TO REQUIRE PAYMENT in gold or a particular kind of coin or currency . . . ARE INCONSISTENT WITH THE DECLARED POLICY OF CONGRESS IN THE PAYMENT OF DEBTS . . . PAYMENT in gold or a particular kind of coin or currency, or in an amount in money of the united States measured thereby, IS DECLARED TO BE AGAINST PUBLIC POLICY: . . . AND . . . EVERY OBLIGATION, HERETOFORE OR HEREAFTER INCURRED, SHALL BE DISCHARGED upon payment, dollar for dollar, in any coin or currency which, at the time of payment, is legal tender for public and private debts . . ."
"All coins and currencies of the United States (including Federal Reserve Notes and circulating notes of Federal Reserve banks and national banking associations) heretofore, or hereafter, coined or issued, SHALL BE LEGAL TENDER for all debts, public and private, public charges, taxes, duties, and dues, . . . " - House Joint Resolution 192, 73d Congress, Sess. I, Ch. 48, June 5, 1933 (Public Law No. 10 ).
Note: "payment of debt" is now against Congressional and "public policy" and henceforth, "Every obligation . . . Shall be discharged."
As a result of HJR-192, and from that day forward (June 5, 1933), no one in this nation has been able to lawfully pay a debt or lawfully own anything. The only thing one can do, is tender in transfer of debts, with the debt being perpetual. The suspension of the gold standard, and prohibition against paying debts, removed the substance for our common law to operate on, and created a void as far as the law is concerned. This substance was replaced with a "PUBLIC NATIONAL CREDIT SYSTEM" where debt is "LEGAL TENDER" money.
The Federal Reserve calls it "monetized debt."
HJR-192 was implemented immediately. The day after President Roosevelt signed the resolution, the treasury offered the public new government securities, minus the traditional "payable in gold" clause.
The Judiciary branch of government has the power to correct this fraud upon the people.
Yet, On May 23, 1933, Congressman, Louis T. McFadden, brought formal charges against the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve Bank system, the Comptroller of the Currency and the Secretary of the United States Treasury for criminal acts.
The petition for Articles of Impeachment was, thereafter, referred to the Judiciary Committee, and has yet to be acted upon.
In 1965 Congress passed the "Coinage Act of 1965" completely debasing the Constitutional Coin; (gold & silver, i.e. Dollar), U.S. vs. Marigold, 50 U.S. 560, 13 L. Ed. 257.
At the signing of the Coinage Act on July 23, 1965, Lyndon B. Johnson stated, in his Press Release that:
"When I have signed this bill before me, we will have made the first fundamental change in our coinage in 173 years. The Coinage Act of 1965 supercedes the Act of 1792. And that Act had the title: An Act Establishing a Mint and Regulating the Coinage of the United States."
"Now I will sign this bill to make the first change in our coinage system, since the 18th Century. To those members of Congress, who are here on this historic occasion, I want to assure you that in making this change from the 18th Century we have no idea of returning to it."
In 1967, in a brazenly unconstitutional act, Congress repudiated its obligation to redeem silver certificates in silver coin or bullion.
In the book, "Pieces of Eight," Dr. Edwin Vieira writes:Through misguided trust, our duly elected sworn public officials took our lawful currency and changed it to unconstitutional bills of credit (irredeemable Federal Reserve Notes), which continues to circulate only because of the public's continuing, misplaced confidence in these notes. The word "legal tender" on today's notes are not a magic incantation; they impart NO intrinsic value to money, nor do they entitle the bearer to exchange these notes for lawful specie. They are a throwback to feudal days when the sovereign could, and did, issue a proclamation declaring what was to be used as "money" whenever he wanted to debase the circulating medium.
"On June 24, 1968 the United States, finally, abandoned the silver standard applicable since Queen Anne's proclamation of 1704, and embraced a system of fiat bills of credit (e.g. alleged currency) based on irredeemable, legal tender, Federal Reserve Notes and debased, legal tender, clad coinage, never to be declared as lawful money of the United States."
INSCRIPTIONS ON FEDERAL RESERVE NOTES
1913 . . . TO . . . 1934
"Redeemable in Gold on demand at the United States Treasury or in Lawful money, at any Federal Reserve Bank." "Will pay to the bearer on demand one dollar."
1934 . . . TO . . . 1968
"This note is legal tender for all debts public and private and is redeemable in lawful money at the United States Treasury, or any Federal Reserve bank." "Will pay to the bearer on demand one dollar."
1968 . . . TO . . . 1998
"This note is legal tender for all debts, public and private"
THERE IS NO PROMISE TO PAY, NOR IS A NOTE A DOLLAR!!
And the New $100 "off center" Franklin bill issued in 1998 and the other "off center" bills issued since are no longer even against a Federal Reserve Bank, the Seal is that of the Federal Reserve System . . .
Welcome to the "System" . . . !!!
US currency (notes, bills of credit) was always to be redeemable in United States specie currency; first issued 76 years after the ratification of the U.S. Constitution, which only mandates gold and silver coin as currency in substance, not form.
Early Federal Reserve Notes were redeemable, but over the years, the wording on these notes regarding the promise and obligation has been gradually changed untill 1968. Since that time our "monetized debt" money offers NO OBLIGATION AND THEY PROMISE NOTHING!!!!
Since 1913, there has been more than just a gradual and accelerating erosion of the alleged dollar's purchasing power in our society. For the privilege of using these notes of private corporate debt as our "money", we were absolved from the responsibility of paying our debts at law.
We were placed in the position of having the "benefit" of limited liability for payment of debt under the jurisdiction of Admiralty/Maritime law (the law merchant/commercial jurisdiction, UCC) in all controversies.
For the privilege of using monetized debt, we also lost the rights secured to us by our Organic Constitutions, both National and State.
Under the law, merchant, you have no rights. We are now using as "lawful money", worthless notes of private corporate debt, backed by our own credit that we can't own, and for this "privilege" we are held to compelled performance under the statutes . . .
To make it simple, as long as this nation's lawful currency is notes of private corporate debt, (bills of credit . . . money backed by no substance) it will remain impossible to ever repay a debt, thereby keeping us and our posterity in debt into perpetuity.
Has Thomas Jefferson's prophecy come to pass? Under the contrived bankruptcy we have lost the right to challenge the constitutionally of the statutes.
We have lost our law . . .
We can own nothing . . .
We have become slaves of the corporation on the land we once owned . . .
And . . . our children are waking up homeless on the continent their forefathers conquered.
"Fiat justitia ruat coelum . . . " "When the skies begin to fall, Justice removes the blindfold from her eyes and tilts the scales."
The Debate Concerning the Effect the Federal Reserve has on the well-being of the Nation and "We the People"
Is there something wrong with the picture below? Could the discussion above have anything to do with it? Is there something different from 1833 to 1920? What happened in 1921? What happened since 1933? What are you going to believe? What are you going to do?
Gold Bullion Market
Yearly Average Price (1833 - Present)
1833 18.93 1834 18.93 1835 18.93 1836 18.93 1837 18.93 1838 18.93 1839 18.93 1840 18.93 1841 18.93 1842 18.93 1843 18.93 1844 18.93 1845 18.93 1846 18.93 1847 18.93 1848 18.93 1849 18.93 1850 18.93 1851 18.93 1852 18.93 1853 18.93 1854 18.93 1855 18.93 1856 18.93 1857 18.93 1858 18.93 1859 18.93 1860 18.93 1861 18.93 1862 18.93
1863 18.93 1864 18.93 1865 18.93 1866 18.93 1867 18.93 1868 18.93 1869 18.93 1870 18.93 1871 18.93 1872 18.94 1873 18.94 1874 18.94 1875 18.94 1876 18.94 1877 18.94 1878 18.94 1879 18.93 1880 18.94 1881 18.94 1882 18.94 1883 18.94 1884 18.94 1885 18.94 1886 18.93 1887 18.93 1888 18.94 1889 18.93 1890 18.94 1891 18.96 1892 18.96
1893 18.96 1894 18.94 1895 18.93 1896 18.98 1897 18.98 1898 18.98 1899 18.94 1900 18.96 1901 18.98 1902 18.97 1903 18.95 1904 18.96 1905 18.92 1906 18.90 1907 18.94 1908 18.95 1909 18.96 1910 18.92 1911 18.92 1912 18.93 1913 18.92 1914 18.99 1915 18.99 1916 18.99 1917 18.99 1918 18.99 1919 19.95 1920 20.68 1921 20.58 1922 20.66
1923 21.32 1924 20.69 1925 20.64 1926 20.63 1927 20.64 1928 20.66 1929 20.63 1930 20.65 1931 17.06 1932 20.69 1933 26.33 1934 34.69 1935 34.84 1936 34.87 1937 34.79 1938 34.85 1939 34.42 1940 33.85 1941 33.85 1942 33.85 1943 33.85 1944 33.85 1945 34.71 1946 34.71 1947 34.71 1948 34.71 1949 31.69 1950 34.72 1951 34.72 1952 34.60
1953 34.84 1954 35.04 1955 35.03 1956 34.99 1957 34.95 1958 35.10 1959 35.10 1960 35.27 1961 35.25 1962 35.23 1963 35.09 1964 35.10 1965 35.12 1966 35.13 1967 34.95 1968 38.69 1969 41.09 1970 35.94 1971 40.80 1972 58.16 1973 97.32 1974 159.26 1975 161.02 1976 124.84 1977 147.71 1978 193.22 1979 306.68 1980 612.56 1981 460.03 1982 375.67
1983 424.35 1984 360.48 1985 317.26 1986 367.66 1987 446.46 1988 436.94 1989 381.44 1990 383.51 1991 362.11 1992 343.82 1993 359.77 1994 384.00 1995 384.17 1996 387.81 1997 331.02 1998 294.24 1999 278.88 2000 279.06 2001 277.90 2002 279.06 2003 363.38 2004 409.72 2005 444.74 2006 603.46 2007 695.39 2008 950+??
As the price of gold goes up, the worth of the Dollar goes down!!
This is the true measure of inflation and buying power of the Dollar!!
MURDER IN THE GOLD MARKET -- Dec. 6, 1999
by Sherman H Skolnick
The founder and major owner of an international financial empire, active in clandestine gold trading, was murdered. This occurred at a key point in the gold market.
Highly secretive, Edmond J. Safra died in a pre-dawn incident when two alleged masked intruders reportedly got into the heavily-secure building in Monaco, and started a fire in or near his two-story penthouse apartment. His copper-domed dwelling is atop a six-story pink stucco building containing the branch of the bank he founded and of which he was the major owner, the Republic National Bank of New York and its subsidiaries such as Safra Republic Holdings of Luxembourg. He lived a short distance from the Grimaldi family royal palace and the Monte Carlo Casino.
Safra was officially a resident of the tax-haven principality notorious for its gold smuggling and its shoreline docks and warehouses used to transfer contraband worldwide.  Ships, some reportedly without names or identification, load and unload there.
Monaco police are puzzled as to the apparent absence of his bodyguard. Was it an inside job? Safra died, suffocated from the blaze. Was the latest arson ingredient used, namely, rocket propellant, which burns furiously and rapidly leaving little trace?
Formed in 1966, Safra's banking and precious metals empire was founded and built primarily after the creation of the State of Israel, by Safra acting as the savvy money laundry expert for wealthy Sephardic Jews desiring to extract their fortunes as they were fleeing Arab countries where they resided. Safra was reportedly an expert on gold smuggling and the use of the precious metal in secret financing of covert operations, such as political assassinations, by intelligence agencies, such as the American CIA.
During 1999, gold bullion had declined to about 252 dollars per ounce, a record low in recent years, more than 30 dollars per oounce below the COST OF PRODUCTION of the most efficient gold mines, those in Canada. South African mines, going so deep in the earth and costly producers, complained they were being ruined. One such mine went into bankruptcy .
Gold bullion prices had a momentous upswing after September, 1999, when most of the European Central Banks made a surprise announcement that they are deferring for five years dumping of gold which previously they had done, supposedly because they did not like to have gold in their reserves anymore. Just prior to that, the Bank of England held a gold auction supposedly of some of its reserves. Actually, the Bank of England was offering gold owned only on paper, not actual gold in their possession. Upon the downfall of the Soviets, corrupt former Commissars stole thousands of tons of the Soviet gold treasury and made a crooked deal with the Dutch beholden to the Vatican.
A Dutch bank octopus, Algemene Bank Nederland, ABN, has reportedly been using that stolen gold to buy numerous banks in 15 U.S. cities. ABN's American flagship is La Salle National Bank of Chicago, a long notorious haven for secret accounts to bribe state and federal judges through offshore fund parking. The Dutch parked this former Soviet gold at or near an airport in Switzerland, for swift, clandestine shipments anywhere on the globe.
Basically, the Bank of England was thus offering by auction Soviet gold they did not own. When currency and gold pirate, George Soros, found out, he began an attack on the Bank of England, whereby gold shot up to almost 330 dollars per ounce. This was caused, in part, by Soros pressing for actual DELIVERY of the gold offered by the Bank of England, on paper, sold to Soros and others. The possibility of demand for DELIVERY is a key part of commodity trading, although actual delivery is seldom demanded. Caught in the middle of the squeezing of the Bank of England and other "short sellers", those selling borrowed or stolen gold not yet in their possession, was reportedly Republic National Bank and Safra's gang of gold smugglers and worldwide criminals.
One well-informed commentator on the rigging of the gold market, calling his essay "I Accuse", said the Republic National Bank was part of an anti-trust monopoly fraudulently forcing down the price of gold, damaging gold mine shareholders and various smaller nations.
NO HONOR AMONG THESE THIEVES!
Thus using his inside knowledge, George Soros launched his attack, thereby fingering and blackmailing the criminal operations of the Bank of England and an accomplice, Goldman Sachs brokerage. Realizing gold is the "killer metal", and his opponents were relying on stolen gold not in their possession, Soros apparently was using the two-faced Safra and Safra's reported precious metals assassins.
Entering into this picture was Alan Greenspan and his highly conspiratorial PRIVATE BANK called the Federal Reserve, used in efforts to rescue those caught in the short selling trap worked by Soros. Soros was demanding huge DELIVERY from Goldman Sachs, a major gold contract peddler. To force down the price of gold by criminal means, Goldman Sachs and others had sold short subject to DELIVERY, the equivalent of TEN YEARS OF GOLDMINE PRODUCTION worldwide. And Safra and gang were in the middle. A default of a short selling contract results in the "long" buyer owning everything of the short seller. Soros was about to own Goldman Sachs and have an armlock on the Bank of England.
So Goldman Sachs reportedly was considering the invoking of a seldom-used contract provision, "force majeure", that an Act of God, horrendous storm, or such, made fulfilling the gold contract impossible. Of course, under the facts, this would be a ridiculous assertion by Goldman Sachs as aided by Greenspan. [Critics call him REDSPAN, since he acts like a rotten Soviet Commissar.]
To again fraudulently force down the price of gold, in December, 1999, the Bank of England conducted another "phantom" gold auction, purporting to sell what they did not possess. That is, the gold stolen by the Moscow criminals and handled by the Dutch with the aid of the Vatican and the Swiss. Just as gold started to collapse again, Edmond J. Safra was murdered.
Not the first time such an assassination happened. At a key point in gold treachery in the 1970s, a major gold promoter, who tangled with the paper-money crowd like the Rockefellers, was thrown to his death from the window of a building in Indianapolis, Indiana.
A flood of stories has developed. Such as, Safra was murdered by the Russian mafiya, because he double-crossed them on Russian ruble gambling. And that Safra's gang were going to finger the Russians with specifics of how the Moscow bandits embezzled billions of dollars from U.S. foreign aid and the International Monetary Fund, and others, and reportedly washed the sums through Safra's money ships.
Then there are the stories that the accused dope money laundry, Bancomer, a Mexican bank empire now spread out across the world, was reportedly criminally implicated with Safra and gang. And this, jointly with the money laundry experts disguising dope money as "soybeans" and "foreign currency" and "gold" dealing, on the Chicago Board of Trade, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, the Chicago Stock Exchange, and the Chicago Board Options Exchange.
The more likely explanation? That the French CIA, operating in their neighbor Monaco, snuffed out Safra. Remember, the French are great fanciers of gold. When real problems develop in Monaco, the authorities there somehow call upon their neighbor, the French police. Yet, in Monaco they have some 300 police officers for about 25,000 residents---a higher proportion than in nearby Nice, France. Once in a position with the secret political police to understand such things, Safra doesn't laugh anymore. Ha! Ha!
 Princess Grace, once a movie star called Grace Kelly, then becoming wife of Grimaldi, the Monaco royal family, was murdered in a sabotaged car crash on a hill between Monaco and France. Some claim she was silenced. She apparently spoke too much about the traditional Italian and Sicilian mafia and their use of the warehouses on the Monaco shoreline and gold smuggling. Also: "Founding Father" Joseph P. Kennedy, of the Kennedy clan, lived in Monaco late in his life to be able to work secretive gold deals for his family in the U.S. where up to 1975, gold ownership by U.S. citizens was against federal law.
 In 1995 we taped a one hour TV Show, part on-location, regarding a former member of the London Gold Pool, John Tarullo and his links to the highly corrupt First National Bank of Cicero. Tarullo was tightly wound into that bank, the dominant figure of which has been Bishop Paul Marcinkus, up to 1991, head of the Vatican Bank. Now in the U.S., Marcinkus is wanted in Italy on charges of gold smuggling and dirty money washing through the Vatican Bank jointly with the American CIA and the traditional mafia.
Marcinkus, protects himself with his Vatican passport. He was originally from the long notorious Chicago mafia-enclave suburb of Cicero, Al Capone land. For many years, Tarullo, as he admitted to us, lived near that Bank, was active there, and arranged worldwide clandestine gold deals for the American CIA and others in the secret political police. [Sort of like Edmond J. Safra.] Tarullo was found murdered on the day in August, 1995, when our public access Cable TV show was aired.
 As to the "I Accuse" accusations against Goldman Sachs, Republic National Bank, Rockefeller's Chase Manhattan Bank, and others, criminally manipulating gold. See: Ted Butler's "I Accuse". http://www.gold-eagle.com/gold_digest_99/butler112299.html
Sherman H Skolnick - Since 1958, Mr. Skolnick has been a court reformer. Since 1963, founder/chairman, Citizen's Committee to Clean Up the Courts, disclosing certain instances of judicial and other bribery and political murders. Since 1991 regular panelist, since 1995 moderator/producer, "Broadsides" public access Cable TV Show, cablecast in Chicago, each Monday, 9 p.m., Channel 21 Cable.
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