The Constitution for the United States, Its Sources and Its Application
The Real Thirteenth Article of Amendment
The Latest Findings of the TONA Research Committee, August 2000

Titles of Nobility and Honour Thirteenth Amendment
Ratification and Publication Table

This is a compilation of data known to date, from researching the various archives for official publications. There are undoubtably more publications which are undiscovered. To view the latest researched data and images of official publications found visit the TONA Research Committee Site

Any Research or Information to help fill in the blanks will be greatly appreciated.

Ratified or
Ratification Date
Pre 1820
Official Publ.
Post 1820
Official Publ.
Delaware Dec. 7, 1787 1YesRat. Feb. 2, 1811   
Pennsylvania Dec. 12, 1787 2 Yes Rat. Feb. 6, 1811 1818 1824,1831
New Jersey Dec. 18, 1787 3 Yes Rat. Feb. 13, 1811    
Georgia Jan. 2, 1788 4 Yes Rat. Nov. 22, 1811 1819 1822,1837,1846
Connecticut Jan. 9, 1788 5 Yes Rej. May 11,1813   1821,1824,1835,
Massachusetts Feb. 6, 1788 6 Yes Rat. Feb. 27, 1812 1816 1823
Maryland Apr. 28, 1788 7 Yes Rat. Dec. 25, 1810    
South Carolina May 23, 1788 8 Tabled Dec. 21, 1814    
New Hampshire June 21, 1788 9 Yes Rat. Dec. 10, 1812    
Virginia June 25, 1788 10 Yes Rat. Mar. 12, 1819 1819  
New York Feb. 6, 1788 11 Rejected Rej. May 1, 1813    
North Carolina Nov. 21, 1789 12 Yes Rat. Dec. 23, 1811 1819 1828
Rhode Island May 29, 1790 13 Yes Rej. Sep. 15, 1814.   1822
Vermont Mar. 4, 1791 14 Yes Rat. Oct. 24, 1811    
Kentucky June 1, 1792 15 Yes Rat. Jan. 31, 1811   1822
Tennessee June 1, 1796 16 Yes Rat. Nov. 21, 1811    
Ohio March 1, 1803 17 Yes Rat. Jan. 31, 1811 1819 1824,1831,1833,
Louisiana Apr. 30, 1812 18 Yes     1825,1838
Indiana Dec. 11, 1816 19 Yes     1824,1831,1838
Mississippi Dec. 10, 1817 20 Yes     1823,1824,1839
Illinois Dec. 3, 1818 21 Yes     1823,1825,1827,
Alabama Dec. 14, 1819 22 Not Known      
Maine Mar.15, 1820 23 Yes The 1825 Constitutions of Maine and the US is the rediscovery document found by Dodge and Dunn in 1983 1825,1831
Missouri Aug. 10, 1821 24 Yes     1825,1835,1840,
Arkansas June 15, 1836 25 Not Known      
Michigan Jan. 26, 1837 26 Yes     Terr. Publication
Florida Mar. 3, 1845 27 Yes     Terr. Publication
Texas Dec. 29, 1845 28 Not Known      
Iowa Dec. 28, 1846 29 Yes     Terr. Publication
Wisconsin May 29, 1848 30 Yes     N.W. Terr. Publ.
California Sep. 9, 1850 31 Not Known      
Minnesota May 11, 1858 32 Yes     N.W. Terr. Publ.
Oregon Feb. 14, 1859 33 Not Known      
Kansas Jan. 29, 1861 34 Yes     1855,1861,1862,
West Virginia June 20, 1863 35 Yes     Va. Publ. 1819
Nevada Oct. 31, 1864 36 Not Known      
Nebraska Mar. 1, 1867 37 Yes     Terr. Publ.1855,
State Publ.1873
Colorado Aug. 1, 1876 38 Yes     Terr. Publ.1861,
1866,1867, 1868
North Dakota Nov. 2, 1889 39 Yes     Terr. Publication
South Dakota Nov. 2, 1889 40 Yes     Terr. Publication
Montana Nov. 8, 1889 41 Not Known      
Washington Nov. 11, 1889 42 Not Known      
Idaho July 3, 1890 43 Not Known      
Wyoming July 10, 1890 44 Yes     Terr. Publication

Of the first 24 states, Delaware thru Missouri, all but three have either ratified the Thirteenth Amendment or recognized it in their official publications. New York rejected ratification and we have not uncovered any official New York publications. It is not known whether definitive action was taken in Alabama or if that state had any official publications showing the Thirteenth Amendment.

Christopher Runkel of the National Archives acknowledged in 1994 that Virginia ratifed the original Thirteenth Amendment on March 12, 1819, and the evidence of the ratification by Virginia is the special printing of 4000 copies as part of their organic state laws.

All of the other States, except New York, had either ratified the Thirteenth Amendment or published it as part of their organic state laws before the admission of Arkansas in 1836. By the time Iowa was admitted, the original Thirteenth Amendment had been included in official publications in every state except New York. The State of Rhode Island, which had rejected this Amendment in 1814 included it in their official publication of 1822.

Two copies of the five volume Bioren and Duane publication, "The Laws of the United States of America, from the 4th of March, 1789 to the 4th of March, 1815" are available in the archives of Yale University and we have an excellent set in our possession. In the text of the U.S. Constitution given by Bioren and Duane, on page 74, the "Titles of Nobility" section is listed as Article XIII and the notation given indicates that it was passed out of the Eleventh Congress in the Second Session. The Bioren and Duane edition of 1815 was published by an Act of Congress. This publication, in five volumes, represents the first authorized edition of the Laws of the United States and the U.S. Constitution issued following the destruction of the Library of Congress and the other records of the government by the British army in 1814. The lawmakers then seated as the Thirteenth Congress authorized the spending for this special edition on February 16th, 1815. This was official recognition of the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment by the Congress of the United States of America.

All constructions of jurisprudence rely on the precise meaning of "ratify," i.e., "to approve or confirm, to give formal sanction to," which is precisely what a state or territory does when it publishes its laws and the U.S. Constitution together. These are the foundation documents of our Republic.

We must not forget how expensive it was to make and publish books in the early part of the 1800s, and with what reverence a well-printed book was treated. That so many books from this era have survived is a testament to the skill and dedication of our pioneer printers.

And today, we must never forget the skill and dedication with which our Founders forged the Constitution for the United States in the formation of the Republic of the united States of America to insure Liberty and Freedom and Justice for All!

The Evidence Can Not Be Denied
Truth will tip the scales and remove the blindfold from Justice.

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